Islamic women's movement in Indonesia do not appear suddenly, but rather is a gradual process
coupled with the issues emerging in his time. This process began since the 19th century in the form
resistance to Dutch colonialism, for example: Cut Nya 'deen, Cut Mutia, Nyai Ageng Serang, and so forth.
The struggle and the movement of women continue to be done by figures of women in Indonesia until
now with various problems and challenges. Women's movement-based NGOs, Universities
as well as religious-based women's struggle never feel complete, a successful issue
championed other issues following the emerging and developing following the cycle in accordance with social changes
and issues in society.
B. Periodization WOMEN ISLAMIC MOVEMENT IN INDONESIA
Women's movement in Indonesia is rather difficult mapped. To facilitate this discussion, it is necessary memngikuti
periodization pereuan movement in general, which can be categorized into 6 periods / force, namely:
1. Force Heroine.
In this period the women's movement focused on the fight against Dutch colonialism. All the nations'
Indonesia at that time taken to fight for the nation to be free from the oppression of the colonizers. Issues
about women when it has not been a priority. People of the women's movement in this period are all
Indonesian heroine who physically fought in the battle field against the Dutch, among others:
1. Nyai Ageng Serang (1752-1828).
2. Cut Nya 'Dien (1850-1908)
3. Cut Mutia (1870-1910)
Third heroine comes from an elite group of nobles who have the potential ketokohan and high fighting spirit
compared with female contemporaries. The struggle they did in the form of physical resistance partnering
with their respective husbands.
2. Kartini Force (First Wave Feminist Social)
The period of force Kartini was the beginning of the struggle of women who have been influenced by the women's movement in
West. The ideas of women who fought for women's emancipation in Europe with a model of liberal feminism
emphasis on access and equal participation of women with men in public areas, the role of productive and
women's issues on education, legal protection, and culture. People of Muslim women in this generation
1. RA. Kartini
2. Dewi Sartika
Not only the Indonesian nation, nations portray another party as a feminist Kartini initial wave
important to be taken into account. The target figure of Kartini's biographer from various perspectives. Muslim writers
Kartini described as a Muslim who fought against the authority of the clerical elite of gender bias
the view is not friendly to women, such as polygamy, forced marriages, arbitrary divorce, and
seclusion traditions that inhibit access to education for women. Kartini is categorized as a Muslim feminist
because of the thoughts he was also influenced by her mother's boarding school-educated.
Dewi Sartika is a noble daughter of Raden Raden Ayu Somanegara and Permas, as Karting,
he went on the ideas of equal rights of women equal to men in the school founded gedis
The first, terrenal with the name "Wife School", later changed its name to "School Primacy Wife." Institutions
This education also develops in 9 districts in the region Pasundan (50% of all schools in Pasundan).
Kartini and Sartika, departed from an elite group of nobles who carried the importance of education for women.
Backwardness of women, and the occurrence of discrimination against women in the life can be changed through
providing opportunities for women in education. In developing his ideas about
education for women affected by the emancipation movement in the West when it is growing. Different
with the two previous periods that focus on issues where women's struggle for independence
participate in the same issue. Force is facing two great power struggle that is against the occupiers
as well as against the domination of men against women. dominance is rooted in the culture of patriarchy and
understanding of religion is detrimental to women, especially in the context of the institution of marriage. Because it is increasingly
higher education of women will be higher bargaining power in front of men. Kartini against indigenous resistance
Java is loaded with myth, symbol of women's subordination and marginalization.
3. Pioneer Independence Army
Turning point in the struggle of women occurred in 1928, when the first Women's Congress held in
Yogyakarta. After Sukarno became pesiden, he asserted that the crucial issue is the struggle of this nation
independence against Dutch oppression. The movement of women in this generation, concentrating on the struggle
independence through organizations and women's groups. Women's movement has
organized in a container, whether that be part of the organization of the dominant male and a
individual entry in the organization or institution where he became part of the decision-makers.
People of Muslim women in this generation include:
1. Nyai Ahmad Dahlan (1872 - May 31, 1946)
2. Haji Rasuna Said (14 September 1910 - October 2, 1965)
3. Rahmah El Yunusiyah (July 10, 1901 - 26 February 1969)
Nyai Ahmad Dahlan as the founder of women's organizations Muhammadiyah "Sopo Trisno" in 1917 which later
to "Ayesha". He also endirikan boarding daughter as a center for training students and scholars', founded the school
general and orphanages. Haji Rasuna Said (West Sumatra) in 1926 became the defining Sarikat People
later became PSII, active in organizations Indonesian Muslim Association in 1930, the founder of the National Committee of Sumatra
West, Legislative Affairs, KNIP members, members of the House of Representatives of Sumatra, and a member of the Board
Representatives Agung (DPA). The Rahmah El Yunusiyah (Padang Panjang) established Diniyah Princess School in Padang
The length in order to establish Islamic daughters and mothers are competent educators, active and responsible
family welfare, community and homeland. Yag movement he is doing to fight the invaders embrace politics
non-cooperative. He helped the formation Sabilillah troops and Hezbollah in 1919 until kemedekaan. After
independence, he was active in the People's Security Army (TKR), which became the core of the battalion Merapi. In 1955 the Rector of Al
Azhar's visit to the institution which he heads daughter, then Rahmah invited to the Al Azhar and
given the title "Syaikhah", his last position as a member of the House 1955.
4. Force Proclamation / Enforcement of Independence (1945-1949)
In this fourth period of the women's movement conducted independently or in groups. Issues which still carried
how women face around the beginning of independence, where in general people are traditional Indonesia
faced in maintaining the newly achieved independence at all costs. As the period
previously that the concentration of the women's movement has not touched the substance of the required specific issues
women. President Sukarno more menekankanbahwa women's problems will be successful if this independence has
achieved. A number of female characters based boarding school (mother gammer) active parenting women students, but less well known
his action, because the author is more interested in male figures.
5. Force Consolidation of Independence (1950-1965)
As with the previous generation, this generation more advanced nationalist women's movement, a number of prominent
active as a professional woman who works in the public domain as well as decision-makers.
Women's groups to establish a good organization based profession, political, social, and local levels
grow very much. Islamic women's movement has been embodied in its women's organizations, such as Aisyiyah, Women
Islam, NU and the pesantren-based women's movement, but access and a certain social role is still limited.
6. Force Development / New Order
Women in Development (WID), which was introduced by the Center for the Study and women's NGOs and 70s
implemented in the 80s, also influence the pattern of Islamic women's movement in Indonesia. WID is a
development approach to integrating women in a system of national development
characterized by the principles of efficiency, and overcome the backwardness of women in development. One strategy
WID is to provide access for women to participate in development in areas that are still
flavorful without being followed awareness of gender stereotypes for men, women bear the dual role that affects
at the expense doubled for women. Women are more supportive of development success, but not
as a connoisseur of development.
Organization of women born in this era is an organization subordinate to men, thus have less
independence in managing the organization. Islamic women's movement-based religious organizations can not be separated
Also from this WID approach. The existence Aisyiyah NU, Al Hidayah and women's organizations bebasis
boarding schools have existed since before this generation, is underbow from its parent organization in which males
dominating position and role of responsibility in the parent organization that the intervention of men over decision
important is still very large.
7. Islamic Women's Movement Reform Era
WID has not been effective enough to be an approach to development. 3rd World Conference on Women in Naerobi year
1985 discusses a new approach that is Gender and Development (GAD), where women and men together
together in getting access, participation, control over resources, and beneficiaries of development
fairly.Then the idea is discussed further GAD approach through the fourth Women's Conference in Beijing in
1995. The conference is themed: Equality, Development, Peace has produced a number of recommendations
that must be implemented by UN member states in an effort to improve access and control the
women's economic resources, political, social and cultural. International commitments it gave birth to Beijing
Platform For Action (BPFA) follows the formulation of strategic objectives to be achieved from 12 Field Critical
defined, namely: 1) Women and Poverty, 2) Education and Training for Women; 3) Women and
Health; 4) Violence Against Women, 5) Women and Conflict Weapons; 6) Women and Economics; 7)
Position of Women in Power and Decision Making Holder; 8) Institutional Mechanisms for
Advancement of Women; 9) Women's Rights; 10) Women and the Mass Media; 11). Women and
Environment; 12) Women Children
To implement these critical areas necessary strategy through policies that have the power
in integrating equality and gender justice into the development strategy known as the Gender
Gender Mainstreaming (PUG) Gender Mainstreaming is a strategy that is built to integrate
gender becomes an integral dimension of planning, preparation, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of
national development policies and programs. As a party to the conference, has followed up Indnesia
through Presidential Instruction No. 9 Th. Neighbor 2000 Gender Mainstreaming in development. As for the measure
success through the Gender Development Index (GDI) with 3 indicators: education, health, and economic,
and Gender Empowerment with indicators of women's role in public decision making. Whereas
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as a measure of women's empowerment to be achieved in 2005