Senin, 27 Desember 2010

Media, Technology, and Power

"Now the politicians know that every step-by-word or expression will be recorded, packaged, and is connected to
the whole world, within a few minutes. "(Edward Luce, Financial Times, 13/06/2008)

Initially, the courses featured in a number of university communications department is the Media, Technology, and
Society (Society). However, from one session in that course, which is associated with power, then by
International Relations Studies Program FISIP UI appear to be one subject alone, the Media, Technology,
and Power (Power).

Students with it and then get the actualization of the application of new technologies, especially in the media, in
relation to political praxis. When one of these days take place a series of U.S. presidential election process, an actual example
The real increase.

On this day, Thursday (12 / 6), CSIS investigators, Philips J Vermonte, also describes some aspects of media use
for achieving political goals. Citing the magazine The Atlantic Monthly June 2008 edition, mentions Vermonte
how political communication has transformed from time to time. Andrew Jackson, for example, form
Democratic Party while printing technology boomed in the early 1800's. Jackson organized the editor
and publishers to form political parties. And Abraham Lincoln became a legendary figure after transcripts campaign
disseminated through newspapers president who was growing rampant in the U.S..

In the next period, Franklin Roosevelt led the U.S. through a difficult time campaigning in New Deal programs
effectively through radio messages. Finally, John Kennedy became very popular after the first presidential debate antarcalon
broadcast television. Kennedy has since been actively utilize television to strengthen its image.

New media

Indeed it is no doubt, the media proved to be an effective tool to reach voters for the masses
candidates, and funnel to the holder of power.

Although a number of Indonesian politicians have incentive to present themselves in the media, from advertising to the Chairman of the PAN website
former Chairman of the Golkar Party, it is still the most basic use.

Compare with by the candidate of the Democratic Party, Barack Obama, with the Internet. With
exploit the nature of Web 2.0 that emphasize community, the Obama team has deployed 30 000 events in 15
month primary campaign.Video recordings of activities that was held can be accessed through the YouTube site, My-
Space, and Facebook. Supporters can also enjoy a variety of campaign messages through the iPod.

Kubu Obama also realizes, political campaigns can not entirely be "white". Evidence, Obama was attacked by
wide range of issues. The campaign is also black and he replied via the Internet, namely the launch site Fight the smears
(Fight Cela).

With a variety of gait campaign on the Internet, Edward Luce writes, if there is a gold medal in the utilization
new technologies for political purposes, then any aficionado would turn them over to Obama (Financial Times, 13 / 6).

The idea made sense also because Obama's channel on YouTube has nearly 1,300 videos made his campaign staff, and it
every day continues to grow. From the people who see it, Obama has been viewed videos 50 million people, while the canal
YouTube John McCain who had 200 new video watched by 4 million people.

Three benefits

According to the New Media Director Joe Rospars Obama's campaign team see the Internet as a tool that can be to achieve
three objectives, namely to help organize supporters, raise funds, and convey a message (telling the
campaign's story).

Growing support for Obama on the internet are also caused by the attitude of "go ahead", laissez-faire, Obama, at
Where supporters are welcome to join the campaign to build content and even build their support site
respectively, as well as we see in Indonesia. There is mention, the Obama campaign so internetfriendly. While
the two other candidates, in this case Hillary Clinton and John McCain, slow to exploit its potential. There is an impression, the team
Hillary campaign escort to apply to the contents of their site (gate-keeping). In fact, the more lightly video
this YouTube era, the faster it spreads.

However, with all these advances, the politicians also draw wisdom from the use of new technologies.

Will extend

Whatever, now new technology is already available to the political aspirants who are longing for power. Indeed
to various countries, related to the infrastructure is installed, there is still much analyzed, where the technology most
effective of these technologies. One analysis presented in a communications expert Ade Armando Association Seminar
Political Science Banjarmasin Indonesia in mid-April last. Because the Internet is still limited in big cities, television
and print media is believed to still the holder of the largest role in the utilization of media technology to politics.

The problem is that big media influence was also no value-free forever. In the past, Hitler made
medium to large-scale propaganda for the ideals of his Nazi (see Media and Society in the Twentieth Century, Gorman
& McLean, 2003). New Order did the same.

In fact, due to the large influence of media such as television, a figure such as Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi and his family
control of private broadcasting network Mediaset, which is reinforced by the three terrestrial channels (Financial Times, 13 / 6).

In addition to influence voters, a medium like television also play a large role in the spread of values. Thus,
do not be surprised if the owners of capital, let alone who have political ideals, do not hesitate to invest big in

In the era of elections, politicians will be more extensive use of new media technology.

Map and issue Islamic Women's Movement in Indonesia


Islamic women's movement in Indonesia do not appear suddenly, but rather is a gradual process
coupled with the issues emerging in his time. This process began since the 19th century in the form
resistance to Dutch colonialism, for example: Cut Nya 'deen, Cut Mutia, Nyai Ageng Serang, and so forth.
The struggle and the movement of women continue to be done by figures of women in Indonesia until
now with various problems and challenges. Women's movement-based NGOs, Universities
as well as religious-based women's struggle never feel complete, a successful issue
championed other issues following the emerging and developing following the cycle in accordance with social changes
and issues in society.


Women's movement in Indonesia is rather difficult mapped. To facilitate this discussion, it is necessary memngikuti
periodization pereuan movement in general, which can be categorized into 6 periods / force, namely:

1. Force Heroine.
In this period the women's movement focused on the fight against Dutch colonialism. All the nations'
Indonesia at that time taken to fight for the nation to be free from the oppression of the colonizers. Issues
about women when it has not been a priority. People of the women's movement in this period are all
Indonesian heroine who physically fought in the battle field against the Dutch, among others:
1. Nyai Ageng Serang (1752-1828).
2. Cut Nya 'Dien (1850-1908)
3. Cut Mutia (1870-1910)

Third heroine comes from an elite group of nobles who have the potential ketokohan and high fighting spirit
compared with female contemporaries. The struggle they did in the form of physical resistance partnering
with their respective husbands.

2. Kartini Force (First Wave Feminist Social)

The period of force Kartini was the beginning of the struggle of women who have been influenced by the women's movement in
West. The ideas of women who fought for women's emancipation in Europe with a model of liberal feminism
emphasis on access and equal participation of women with men in public areas, the role of productive and
women's issues on education, legal protection, and culture. People of Muslim women in this generation
1. RA. Kartini
2. Dewi Sartika

Not only the Indonesian nation, nations portray another party as a feminist Kartini initial wave
important to be taken into account. The target figure of Kartini's biographer from various perspectives. Muslim writers
Kartini described as a Muslim who fought against the authority of the clerical elite of gender bias
the view is not friendly to women, such as polygamy, forced marriages, arbitrary divorce, and
seclusion traditions that inhibit access to education for women. Kartini is categorized as a Muslim feminist
because of the thoughts he was also influenced by her mother's boarding school-educated.

Dewi Sartika is a noble daughter of Raden Raden Ayu Somanegara and Permas, as Karting,
he went on the ideas of equal rights of women equal to men in the school founded gedis
The first, terrenal with the name "Wife School", later changed its name to "School Primacy Wife." Institutions
This education also develops in 9 districts in the region Pasundan (50% of all schools in Pasundan).
Kartini and Sartika, departed from an elite group of nobles who carried the importance of education for women.
Backwardness of women, and the occurrence of discrimination against women in the life can be changed through
providing opportunities for women in education. In developing his ideas about
education for women affected by the emancipation movement in the West when it is growing. Different
with the two previous periods that focus on issues where women's struggle for independence
participate in the same issue. Force is facing two great power struggle that is against the occupiers
as well as against the domination of men against women. dominance is rooted in the culture of patriarchy and
understanding of religion is detrimental to women, especially in the context of the institution of marriage. Because it is increasingly
higher education of women will be higher bargaining power in front of men. Kartini against indigenous resistance
Java is loaded with myth, symbol of women's subordination and marginalization.

3. Pioneer Independence Army

Turning point in the struggle of women occurred in 1928, when the first Women's Congress held in
Yogyakarta. After Sukarno became pesiden, he asserted that the crucial issue is the struggle of this nation
independence against Dutch oppression. The movement of women in this generation, concentrating on the struggle
independence through organizations and women's groups. Women's movement has
organized in a container, whether that be part of the organization of the dominant male and a
individual entry in the organization or institution where he became part of the decision-makers.

People of Muslim women in this generation include:
1. Nyai Ahmad Dahlan (1872 - May 31, 1946)
2. Haji Rasuna Said (14 September 1910 - October 2, 1965)
3. Rahmah El Yunusiyah (July 10, 1901 - 26 February 1969)

Nyai Ahmad Dahlan as the founder of women's organizations Muhammadiyah "Sopo Trisno" in 1917 which later
to "Ayesha". He also endirikan boarding daughter as a center for training students and scholars', founded the school
general and orphanages. Haji Rasuna Said (West Sumatra) in 1926 became the defining Sarikat People
later became PSII, active in organizations Indonesian Muslim Association in 1930, the founder of the National Committee of Sumatra
West, Legislative Affairs, KNIP members, members of the House of Representatives of Sumatra, and a member of the Board
Representatives Agung (DPA). The Rahmah El Yunusiyah (Padang Panjang) established Diniyah Princess School in Padang
The length in order to establish Islamic daughters and mothers are competent educators, active and responsible
family welfare, community and homeland. Yag movement he is doing to fight the invaders embrace politics
non-cooperative. He helped the formation Sabilillah troops and Hezbollah in 1919 until kemedekaan. After
independence, he was active in the People's Security Army (TKR), which became the core of the battalion Merapi. In 1955 the Rector of Al
Azhar's visit to the institution which he heads daughter, then Rahmah invited to the Al Azhar and
given the title "Syaikhah", his last position as a member of the House 1955.

4. Force Proclamation / Enforcement of Independence (1945-1949)

In this fourth period of the women's movement conducted independently or in groups. Issues which still carried
how women face around the beginning of independence, where in general people are traditional Indonesia
faced in maintaining the newly achieved independence at all costs. As the period
previously that the concentration of the women's movement has not touched the substance of the required specific issues
women. President Sukarno more menekankanbahwa women's problems will be successful if this independence has
achieved. A number of female characters based boarding school (mother gammer) active parenting women students, but less well known
his action, because the author is more interested in male figures.

5. Force Consolidation of Independence (1950-1965)

As with the previous generation, this generation more advanced nationalist women's movement, a number of prominent
active as a professional woman who works in the public domain as well as decision-makers.
Women's groups to establish a good organization based profession, political, social, and local levels
grow very much. Islamic women's movement has been embodied in its women's organizations, such as Aisyiyah, Women
Islam, NU and the pesantren-based women's movement, but access and a certain social role is still limited.

6. Force Development / New Order

Women in Development (WID), which was introduced by the Center for the Study and women's NGOs and 70s
implemented in the 80s, also influence the pattern of Islamic women's movement in Indonesia. WID is a
development approach to integrating women in a system of national development
characterized by the principles of efficiency, and overcome the backwardness of women in development. One strategy
WID is to provide access for women to participate in development in areas that are still
flavorful without being followed awareness of gender stereotypes for men, women bear the dual role that affects
at the expense doubled for women. Women are more supportive of development success, but not
as a connoisseur of development.

Organization of women born in this era is an organization subordinate to men, thus have less
independence in managing the organization. Islamic women's movement-based religious organizations can not be separated
Also from this WID approach. The existence Aisyiyah NU, Al Hidayah and women's organizations bebasis
boarding schools have existed since before this generation, is underbow from its parent organization in which males
dominating position and role of responsibility in the parent organization that the intervention of men over decision
important is still very large.

7. Islamic Women's Movement Reform Era

WID has not been effective enough to be an approach to development. 3rd World Conference on Women in Naerobi year
1985 discusses a new approach that is Gender and Development (GAD), where women and men together
together in getting access, participation, control over resources, and beneficiaries of development
fairly.Then the idea is discussed further GAD approach through the fourth Women's Conference in Beijing in
1995. The conference is themed: Equality, Development, Peace has produced a number of recommendations
that must be implemented by UN member states in an effort to improve access and control the
women's economic resources, political, social and cultural. International commitments it gave birth to Beijing
Platform For Action (BPFA) follows the formulation of strategic objectives to be achieved from 12 Field Critical
defined, namely: 1) Women and Poverty, 2) Education and Training for Women; 3) Women and
Health; 4) Violence Against Women, 5) Women and Conflict Weapons; 6) Women and Economics; 7)
Position of Women in Power and Decision Making Holder; 8) Institutional Mechanisms for
Advancement of Women; 9) Women's Rights; 10) Women and the Mass Media; 11). Women and
Environment; 12) Women Children

To implement these critical areas necessary strategy through policies that have the power
in integrating equality and gender justice into the development strategy known as the Gender
Mainstreaming (mainstreaming).

Gender Mainstreaming (PUG) Gender Mainstreaming is a strategy that is built to integrate
gender becomes an integral dimension of planning, preparation, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of
national development policies and programs. As a party to the conference, has followed up Indnesia
through Presidential Instruction No. 9 Th. Neighbor 2000 Gender Mainstreaming in development. As for the measure
success through the Gender Development Index (GDI) with 3 indicators: education, health, and economic,
and Gender Empowerment with indicators of women's role in public decision making. Whereas
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as a measure of women's empowerment to be achieved in 2005
and 2015.


Fights, or often called brawl, frequent among students. In fact it is "only" between high school students,
but also has already hit up to the campuses. Some say that fighting is normal in

In big cities like Jakarta, Surabaya, and Medan, the brawl is often the case. Data in Jakarta for example (Bimmas
Police Metro Jaya), in 1992 recorded 157 cases of student fights. Year 1994 increased to 183 cases with
killing 10 students, in 1995 there were 194 cases with the victim died 13 students and 2 community members
other. In 1998 there are 230 cases that killed 15 students and 2 members of the Police, and the following year casualties
increased with 37 people killed. Seen from year to year the number of fights and the victims tend to increase.
Even the often recorded in a single day there are up to three fights in three places at once.

Impact of student fights

It is clear that this student fights hurt many parties. There are at least four categories of negative impacts from
Student fights. First, students (and families) involved fights itself clearly having a negative impact
first when injured or even killed.Second, damage to public facilities such as buses, bus stops and facilities
others, as well as private facilities such as glass shops and vehicles. Third, disruption of the learning process at school. Finally,
is perhaps the most feared of educators, student awards were reduced to tolerance,
peace and values of other people's lives. Students learned that violence is the most effective way to
solve their problems, and therefore choose to do anything for the goal is reached. Consequences
This last obviously has long term consequences to the viability of a society in Indonesia.
Overview of the causes of student brawl

Often alleged, students who fight came from vocational schools, come from families with economic
weak. Data in Jakarta do not support this. Of the 275 schools which often involved fights, 77 of whom are
high school. So is the economic level, which indicates there are some students who often
capable of fighting comes from a family economically. More charges are also often addressed to the school were deemed
less provide religious education and good morals. So did the family said to be less harmonious
and often not at home.

Though the causes of student fights are not that simple. Especially in large cities, the problem in such a
complex, including factors sociological, cultural, psychological, and educational policy in the broad sense (solid curriculum
for example), as well as other public policies such as public transportation and city planning.

Psychologically, a fight involving a teenage student is classified as a form of delinquency
adolescent (juvenile deliquency). Juvenile delinquency, in terms of fights, can be classified into 2 types of delinquency
the situational and systematic. In situational delinquency, fights occur because of the situation
"Require" them to fight. The requirement that usually arises due to the need to solve
problems quickly. While the delinquency of systematic, the teens involved in the fight
a particular organization or a gang. Here there are rules, norms and habits that should be followed by its members,
including fighting. As a member, if they are proud to do what is expected by the group.

Review the causes of adolescent psychology students getting into fights

In the view of psychology, each behavior is an interaction between the tendencies within the individual (often
called personality, though not always accurate) and external conditions. Similarly, in terms of student fights. When
described, there are at least 4 psychological factors why a teen student getting into fights.

Internal factors. Teenagers are getting into fights are usually less able to adapt to the environmental situation
complex. Complex here means the diversity of views, cultures, economic levels, and all
stimuli from the environment are increasingly diverse and many. This situation usually raises the pressure on
every person. But the teenagers getting into fights, they are less able to cope, let alone
exploit the situation for his development. They are usually easy to despair, rapid escape from
problem, blame someone / other party in every case, and chose to use the simplest way to
solve the problem. In adolescents who often fought, it was found that they experience inner conflict, it is easy
frustration, have labile emotions, are not sensitive to the feelings of others, and have a low sense of self
strong. They are usually in desperate need of recognition.

Family factors. Households that filled with violence (either between the parents or the child) had an obvious effect
in children. Son, when increased adolescent, learning that violence is a part of himself, so that is something
natural that he too violent. Conversely, parents who are too protect her child, while teenagers will
grow as individuals who are not independent and does not dare to develop a unique identity. So join
with his friends, he will hand over destiny is totally against the group as part of identity
he built.

School factors. First school is not viewed as an institution should educate students to be
something. But schools must first be judged by the quality of teaching. Therefore, the school environment
not stimulate students to learn (such as a monotonous atmosphere of the class, the rules that are not relevant to
teaching, lack of lab facilities, etc..) will cause more students to enjoy doing outdoor activities
school with her friends. Only after the issue of education, where teachers most certainly played a role
important. Unfortunately teachers act more as a punishment and implementing rules, as well as authoritarian figures who
actually also use violence (though in different form) in "educating" their students.

Environmental factors. Environment between home and school everyday natural teens, also had an impact
against the emergence of a fight. For example, a narrow home environment and slums, and members of environmental
behaving badly (eg drugs). Similarly, public transportation is often menomor-sekiankan student.
Also urban environment (can the state) that violent. Overall it can stimulate the youth to learn
something from the environment, and then the emotional reaction to the growing support for the emergence of behavior